STP (Sewage Treatment Plant)
Sewage treatment is a type of wastewater treatment which aims to remove contaminants from sewage.
sewage is usually a semi-solid waste or slurry, called sewage sludge that has to undergo further treatment before being suitable for disposal or land application.
Sewage is generated by residential, institutional, commercial and industrial establishments. It includes household waste liquid from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, and sinks draining into sewers. The separation and draining of household waste into grey water and black water is becoming more common in the developed world, with grey water being permitted to be used for watering plants or recycled for flushing toilets.
ZLD (Zero Liquid Discharge Plant)
Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) is a treatment process designed to remove all the liquid waste from a system. The focus of ZLD is to reduce wastewater economically and produce clean water that is suitable for reuse (e.g. irrigation), thereby saving money and being beneficial to the environment. ZLD systems employ advanced wastewater/desalination treatment technologies to purify and recycle virtually all of the wastewater produced.
ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)
Effluent is generated in many manufacturing industries like textile, pharmaceuticals and chemicals, tanneries etc. Contaminated water cannot be released without treatment as it contains toxic and non-toxic chemicals.
Releasing it may cause contamination of the existing pure water and will affect the environment. As a result ETP’s are installed in most manufacturing industries.
The Effluent treatment plants (ETP) are used for the removal of high amounts of organic compounds, debris, dirt, grit, pollution, toxic, non-toxic materials and polymers etc. from industrial effluent. The ETP plants use evaporation and drying methods and other auxiliary techniques such as centrifuging, filtration, incineration for chemical processing and effluent treatment.
RO (Reverse osmosis plant)
osmosis (RO) is a water purification process that uses a partially permeable membrane to separate ions, unwanted
molecules and larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic parameter. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of dissolved and suspended chemical species as well as biological ones (principally bacteria) from water, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water.